The countries of the region have made progress in modernising the state to promote innovation in four main areas: i) the introduction of public-policy models focused on strengthening national innovation systems; ii) new governance models for the design of strategies focused on generating spaces for negotiation and co-ordination between different levels of government (vertical and horizontal co-ordination); iii) new policy instruments, in particular the introduction of new financing mechanisms and support for technology transfer; and iv) strengthening institutional capacities at both technical and policy-management levels, such as through the creation of strategic intelligence units to define strategies and assess policy impact.