1. OECD (2010).

2. De la Cruz, R., C. Pineda and C. Pöschl (2010).

3. In all countries of the region, a large majority of citizens claim to support democracy. The widespreadperception in all countries for which ECLAC data is available is that a significant level of democracy has

been reached. (CEPALSTAT 2010)

4. See OECD (2010).

5. Data taken from the “Americas Barometer” of the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP).

6. See Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index 2010 (

7. This section is largely based on OECD (2006 and 2011b).

8. Many of these key points are reflected in the recent conclusions of the ministerial meeting of the OECD Public Governance Committee, held in Venice in 2010 (

9. CEPAL (2010).

10. ILPES (2011).

11. Martner (2008) and ECLAC (2011).

12. OECD (2011c).

13. Naser and Concha (2011).

14. OECD (2010).


ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean) (CEPAL) (2010), Time for Equality: Closing Gaps, Opening Trails. Thirty-third period of ECLAC sessions. Brasilia, 30 May – 1 June 2010, (LC/G.2432 (SES.33/3)), ECLAC, Santiago, Chile.

Dayton-Johnson, J., J. Londoño and S. Nieto Parra (2011), “The Process of Reform in Latin America: A Review Essay”, OECD Development Centre Working Paper 304, Paris.

De la Cruz, R., C. Pineda and C. Pöschl (eds) (2010), The Local Alternative: Decentralization and Economic Development, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).

Johannsen, J., L. Tejerina and A. Glassman (2009), Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America: Problems and Opportunities, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.

ILPES (Latin America n and Caribbean Institute for Economic and Social Planning) (2011), “Panorama de la Gestión Pública en América Latina: En la hora de la igualdad”, ILPES, Santiago, Chile.

Martner, R. (ed.) (2008), “Planificar y presupuestar en América Latina”, Serie Seminarios y Conferencias, No. 51, (LC/L.2859-P), ILPES/CEPAL, Santiago, Chile.

Naser, A. and G. Concha (2011), El gobierno electrónico en la gestión pública, CEPAL/ILPES, LC/L.3313-P and LC/IP/L.308, Serie Gestión Pública, No. 73, Santiago, Chile.

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2005), Modernising Government: The Way Forward, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2011a), OECD Public Governance Reviews: Public Sector Integrity in Brazil, Managing Risks for a Cleaner Public Service, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011b), Conclusions of the Ministerial meeting of the OECD Public Governance Committee,, accessed 8 October 2011.

OECD (2011c), M-Government: Mobile Technologies for Responsive Governments and Connected Societies, OECD Publishing.

OECD (2011d), Government at a Glance, OECD, Paris.

OECD (2010), Latin American Economic Outlook 2011: How Middle Class is Latin America?, OECD Development Centre, Paris.

United Nations (2008), UN Global E-Government Survey 2008: From E-Government to Connected Governance, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York.