1. ECLAC (2010a)

2. ECLAC/SEGIB (2010).

3. Gazzola and Didriksson (2008).

4. Since the beginning of this assessment, the countries participating in PISA include all OECD economies and a growing number of associate countries. As a result, from 2000 to 2009 the number of participants rose from 43 to 65 countries.

5. OECD (2010e).

6. In the reading test, Chile and Peru recorded the most improvement in the region during the first decade of the 20th century. In the mathematics test, Brazil and Mexico have improved since 2003, while the performance of other Latin American countries has remained the same. In the science test, results improved in three countries: Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Their improvement was the equivalent of one year of schooling, in part thanks to a decline in the proportion of students with low skill levels.

7. OECD (2010a).

8. OECD (2010i).

9. Duryea et al. (2007).

10. For the total PISA sample, 24% of male students have a low performance compared to 12% of female students. There is an average difference of 39 points between males and females among OEC D economies. In the group of Latin American countries, both the country with the best (Chile) and worst (Peru) outcomes show a difference between male and female students of 22 points. Colombia has the lowest difference between males and females of all the countries (9 points).

11. OECD (2010j).

12. The PISA test uses two basic measures of performance, one associated with test scores and one associated with equity in the distribution of scores within schools, between schools and across countries.

13. ECLAC (2010c).

14. ECLAC/IYO (2008) and ECLAC (2010c).

15. ECLAC (2010c).

16. ECLAC (2010c).

17. Marcel and Raczynski (2009).

18. ECLAC (2010c).

19. ECLAC (2010c).

20. Jakubowski (2010) and Petrow and Vegas (2009).

21. Pereyra (2008).

22. Psacharopoulos and Patrinos (2004).

23. World Bank (2008).

24. Persson and Tabellini (2000).

25. Faguet (2004).

26. Myerson (2006), Gradstein et al. (2004).

27. Bardhan (2002).

28. Galiani and Schargrodsky (2002).

29. Carnoy (1999) and Candia (2004)

30. See Vegas and Umansky (2007) on decentralisation experiences in Central America.

31. Di Gropello (1999).

32. Cortes (2010).

33. Rapalo (2003).Latin American Economic Outlook 2012 © OECD/ECLAC 2011

34. Rapalo (2003).

35. Galiani and Schargrodsky (2002); Avendaño and Nopo (forthcoming). One example of resource redistribution policies is the Preferential School Subsidy Law (SEP) in Chile, which provides subsidies for each student classified as a priority student. Thus, a school with more priority students can receive more resources. Another important element is that schools receiving this funding follow a school improvement plan. Another example took place in Mexico with the Quality Schools Programme (PEC) and the Full-Time Schools Programme (PETC), initiatives to improve the quality of teaching in disadvantaged schools and to increase their resources (OECD, 2010h).

36. Gazzola and Didriksson (2008).

37. For example, only a few countries stand out for number of publications and scientific citations on a world level (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico). (ECLAC/SEGIB, 2010)

38. ECLAC (2010b).

39. OECD (2009).

40. OECD (2010c, 2010g).

41. OECD (2010d).

42. Since 2006, the ENLACE test has measured the level of knowledge and skills of students defined in official programmes of study. This evaluation covers the areas of Spanish, mathematics and a rotatingsubject. Over 100 000 schools participate. See Campos-Vásquez and Romero (2010).

43. OECD (2010d).

44. OECD (2010d).

45. OECD (2010c, 2010h).

46. Mizala and Nopo (2011).

47. OECD (2010b).

48. OECD (2011).


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